DNA Transmission of Traumatic Memories
© 2014 by Linda Moulton Howe
“This compelling evidence addresses constitutional fearfulness
that is highly relevant to phobias, anxiety and post-traumatic stress
disorders, plus the controversial subject of transmission of the ‘memory’
of ancestral experience down the generations.”
- Marcus Pembrey, Ph.D., Pediatric Geneticist,
University College London, U. K.
Emory University School of Medicine researchers
have reported in in the journal of Nature Neuroscience,
that memories can be passed down to later generations
through chemical changes in DNA.
January 14, 2014 Atlanta, Georgia and Pacific Northwest - The journal of Nature Neuroscience on December 1, 2013, published a paper entitled, “Parental olfactory experience influences behavior and neural structure in subsequent generations.” See websites below. The lead author is 33-year-old Brian G. Dias, Ph.D., originally from Mumbai, India, and now a neuroscientist in the Department of Psychiatry's Yerkes National Primate Research Center at Emory University in Atlanta, Georgia. Three years ago when he began his investigation, Dr. Dias wanted to know if fear and aversion to the smell of cherry blossoms could be activated in a parent generation exposed to an electric shock on their feet whenever cherry blossom scent was presented to the mice.
Those electroshocked mice had baby mice (generation F1) in which that generation did have an increased sensitivity and aversion to cherry blossom odor. Those mice grew up and had babies and that second generation (F2) of mice also had increased sensitivity and aversion to cherry blossom odor.
A glomerulus (dark blue oval) is a functional unit
of odor processing within the olfactory bulb of the brain.
Dr. Dias and colleagues showed that pairing an odor with a shock
leads to an increased number of odor-specific cells in the
nose and size of the odor-specific glomerulus in the adult mouse,
which then persists for at least two generations through inheritance.
Courtesy Emory Yerkes National Primate Research Center.
Dr. Dias wrote in his Nature Neuroscience article, “In addition, in vitro fertilization, the F2 inheritance and cross-fostering revealed that these transgenerational effects are inherited via parental gametes. ... the experiences of a parent, before even conceiving offspring, markedly influence both structure and function in the nervous system of subsequent generations."
The name gamete was introduced by the Austrian biologist Gregor Mendel in his genetic studies. During sexual fertilization, the female produces the larger type of gamete, which is the egg. The male produces the smaller tadpole-like gamete called a sperm. The egg and sperm gametes each carry half the genetic information to produce a new individual.
Illustration of gametes that will unite in fertilization as the sperm
swims toward egg. Image by Rockyview.ab.ca.
Dr. Dias's research now shows that environmental trauma — in his research it is electric shock to mice feet when cherry blossom smells are around — can produce chemical changes in DNA that affects how the genes are read. Those chemical changes cause genetic switches that allow offspring through at least two generations to inherit the environmental experience of their parents and grandparents. This evidence might explain phobias. Phobias are extreme anxieties and fears about objects that are not in the person's day-to-day environment, but still provoke overwhelming fears of things such as spiders, snakes, small spaces and heights.
Since this research was published in December 2013, I began to receive emails from Earthfiles viewers with questions about allegedly leaked government documents in the early 1980s that stated, “Extraterrestrial biological entities have manipulated DNA in already-evolving primates to create Homo sapiens.” See: "Ancient Foreign DNA Found in Modern Human DNA."
After reading about the DNA transmission of traumatic memories, one private detective from the Pacific Northwest, who has long been affected by the human abduction syndrome, wrote the following to Earthfiles:
Joshua Rhinehall, January 14, 2014: “This brings an insight to the theory of an alien genetics program influencing humanity. The melding of different DNA traits will alter the capacity of mankind. Could an alien race who has altered humanity to become more like/compatible with them over the centuries use our DNA to obtain experiences? Could those experiences be a commodity for aliens (that would make humanity one large herd of genetic milk cows)? Or can the alien race inject a DNA trait from them to us? For example, can an alien race inject into our DNA the desire for gold? (Zecharia Sitchin's work described the Mesopotamian Annunaki as genetically manipulating already-evolving primates to create humans to first be gold miners for the Annunaki.) I say yes absolutely.”
See 12-part Earthfiles about Joshua Rhinehall's experiences with various non-human entities in which he has been shown that extraterrestrial or other-dimensional beings change life on planets, including Earth, by inserting specifically altered DNA into biological organisms at certain times in the planet's evolving timeline to change futures for the evolution of life. He says, “I feel that the non-human entities have conducted genetic testing on mankind for centuries in order to alter human genetics and guide our evolution to a point where they can harvest a genetic component for cloning and/or hybrid that has the ability to contain a soul” with very specific traits cultivated through reincarnative cycles in and out of certain containers made from DNA.
Brian George Dias, Ph.D., 33, Pediatric Geneticist, Dept. of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Yerkes National Primate Research Center, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia: “It is imperative to note that the F1 and F2 offspring, or generations, were never exposed to these odors before (after births).
SO THE ONLY WAY THERE COULD BE A PHOBIA, OR DISLIKE TO THAT PARTICULAR CHERRY BLOSSOM SMELL, WOULD HAVE TO BE IN THE DNA OF THE SUBSEQUENT GENERATIONS OF MICE?
At this point, we would not like to call it a phobia or dislike as opposed to just a sensitivity to that particular odor. By that we mean that the nervous systems of these descendant generations are more primed to respond to this odor when the offspring encounter the odor in their own environments. But you are absolutely right in that we found it is biological inheritance, which is at the heart of our behavioral findings and not social transmission.
HOW DID YOU MAKE THAT DISTINCTION?
We first did an in vitro fertilization experiment where we trained adult mice to associate this particular smell with electroshocks to their feet. And then we did not allow for mating to occur. But what we did is take the sperm from those male mice and artificially inseminated female mice and what we found is that the structural effects (chemical changes in DNA) we saw in the descendant generations, which allows them to process this particular smell differently. Those structural (chemical) effects still persist even when the only thing used to artificially inseminate was the sperm and you did not even need to have the male mouse around.
If there had been a social transmission of information, you would need the male to be around for mating to transmit the information to his descendant offspring. But since we saw the chemical changes in the offspring's DNA in the absence of the male, we are confident that the clues that allow this particular effect to occur are present in the sperm.
SO YOUR WORK IS GOING BEYOND GENETIC TRAITS OF BLOND HAIR, BLUE EYES AND SO FORTH TO PHOBIAS AND ENVIRONMENTAL SENSITIVITIES THAT ARE TRANSMITTED BY DNA THROUGH GENERATIONS?
We hesitate to use the words 'genetic transmission' because in the scientific world, genetic transmission would mean the information is encoded within the sequence of the genes in the genome. What we are suggesting is that the effects we are seeing is of epigenetic nature. Epigenetic refers to how the DNA code is read.
[ Editor's Note: Wikipedia - Epigenetics in biology, and specifically genetics, is the study of heritable changes in gene activity that are not caused by changes in the DNA sequence.]
WHAT IS THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN ENCODED DNA VERSUS HOW DNA CODE IS READ?
Usually we think of genetic transmission changes as a physical change in the gene sequencing of DNA that allow the building of a different protein at a different time, for example. What we are showing is that the sequence of a particular gene that encodes a particular receptor that binds to the particular smell that we've trained these mice to be fearful of - the physical gene sequence of that receptor does not change. The sequence of As (adenine), Cs (cytosine), Gs (guanine) and Ts (thymine) do not change.
ACGT is an acronym for the four types of bases found in a DNA molecule:
adenine (A), cytosine (C), guanine (G), and thymine (T). A DNA molecule consist
s of two strands wound around each other, with each strand held together by bonds
between the bases. Adenine pairs with thymine, and cytosine pairs with guanine.
The sequence of bases in a portion of a DNA molecule, called a gene,
carries the instructions needed to assemble a protein. Source: GeneEd.
What changes is how that A, C, G or T is read out, so it is not so much the sequence of the genes, but the regulation, the fine tuning, of that gene, which is affected by environmental factors.
What Reads Gene Sequences?
WHAT IS DOING THE READING?
That is a question of a lot of scientific inquiries. There are molecular species called 'readers' and 'erasers' and 'modifiers,' which allow for epigentic codes to be read, erased or modified. The field of cancer biology was one of the first to try to unravel this. I think we are the product of how our genes are read as a result of the environment as opposed to just being the product of our genes.
YOU DON'T KNOW WHAT THE READER IS?
No, we don't.
DO YOU HAVE HARD PHYSICAL EVIDENCE THAT THE GENETIC SEQUENCING IN THE DNA HAS NOT BEEN CHANGED?
We have definitive evidence that the DNA sequence has not been changed and at no point in our paper do we claim that the DNA sequence has been changed. As a result, we propose an epigenetic mechanism of (chemical) regulation that allows for the affects on behavior that we see.
WHAT STRIKES ME OUT OF YOUR WORK IS THE IMPORTANCE OF BLOODLINES GOING BACK THOUSANDS OF YEARS WITH THE IMPLICATION THAT HOMO SAPIENS FRIGHTENING EXPERIENCES WITH SNAKES AND SPIDERS, FOR EXAMPLE, COULD BE TRANSMITTED GENERATION TO GENERATION THROUGH THE DNA.
So far, all we've studied is two generations in mice, so we don't want to extrapolate these results to an evolutionary timescale over several thousand years. So how phobias and dislikes came into being, we don't really know. But what we do show is that over shorter timescales, environmental traumas can affect how individuals respond to environmental factors and threats.
Phobia Therapy for Humans?
IN THE CONTEXT OF YOUR DEPARTMENT OF PSYCHIATRY AT EMORY UNIVERSITY, ISN'T A LOGICAL APPLICATION OF THIS TRYING TO DEAL WITH HUMAN PHOBIAS — FEARS OF THINGS — THAT YOU ARE SAYING COULD COME FROM THE EPIGENETIC TRANSMISSION IN DNA?
Yes, absolutely, and as part of that mission, we are conducting animal studies, which allow us to test whether changing cognitive behavior would buffer successive generations from ancestral traumas.
HOW WOULD THAT WORK?
We would take the mice that have been exposed to the electroshocks with the odor of cherry blossoms and not shock them when the odor is presented. If their aversion to the smell goes away, then we have something important to think about for therapy.
There are already virtual reality environments to treat people who are scared of heights, for example. In that technology of images, people are taken up two flights of stairs and made to look over into an empty space many times to get more used to it. Then they are virtually taken up to the eighteenth floor and their fear decreases over time. We call that 'extinction learning,' doing away with a fear.
BUT ISN'T THE MOST FASCINATING PART OF THIS RESEARCH THE IMPLICATION THAT IN THE DISTANT PAST, THAT THE REASON THERE ARE FEARS OF HEIGHTS, SPIDERS, SNAKES AND A LOT OF THINGSIS BECAUSE HUMANS IN THE PAST HAVE ENCOUNTERED THREATS TO THEIR LIFE AND THOSE FEARS HAVE BEEN TRANSMITTED THROUGH THE DNA TO SUBSEQUENT GENERATIONS?
I can't say there has been encoding in the DNA to be scared of a particular environmental factor because we don't know that. But we're only just scratching the surface and have absolutely no idea about the far reaching implications of specific phobias. That is something we need time to decipher in the scientific community.
YOUR BOTTOM LINE IS THAT NO MATTER WHAT WE HAVE INHERITED IN DNA AND RNA AND GENETIC SEQUENCING, YOUR RESEARCH INDICATES TRAUMA CAN BE NEUTRALIZED AND NOT TRANSMITTED TO OTHER GENERATIONS IF THERE IS CONSCIOUS EFFORT TO COUNTERACT TRAUMA?
Yes. We're going to try to neutralize trauma in the mice generations by trying extinction training to see if that will eliminate a traumatic fear in next generations. That's the opposite of what we have found so far with the mice developing aversions to cherry blossom scents because of electroshocks to their feet. So we'll introduce cherry blossom scents without electroshocks to the mice feet and they'll become less afraid of that odor.
I'VE RECEIVED A LOT OF EMAIL FROM VIEWERS AND LISTENERS AFTER THE FIRST HEADLINES ABOUT YOUR RESEARCH RECENTLY. ONE OF THE QUESTIONS TO ME HAS BEEN: DOES THIS EXPLAIN REINCARNATION IN THE SENSE OF PEOPLE BEING RE-BORN AFTER DEATH IN ANOTHER BODY CONTAINER WITH KNOWLEDGE OF EVENTS IN THE PAST THAT HAVE BEEN DOCUMENTED?
I think that's beyond my expertise at this point, so I'll refrain from commenting.
WOULDN'T MEMORIES OF PRE-EXISTING LIFE FALL INTO THE CATEGORY OF YOUR RESEARCH?
Maybe or maybe not, but as I said, it's beyond my expertise and I'm not prepared to go down that route.”
Joshua Rhinehall, May 2, 2011
Joshua Rhinehall, May 2, 2011: “Along with direct physical genetic manipulation conducted by the entities, I feel that they further reinforce the desired genetic effects by placing a person or civilizations into an environmental situation that forces growth. The external stimuli can vary from being taken to a place and forced to learn an alien language - to having to endure the horrors of war. The phrase 'Lazarus Effect' makes sense if genetic code is totally extracted from an organism to force re-growth, or ‘resurrection,’ of a desired trait and then that genetically manipulated organism is placed into a controlled environment to nurture that desired change. Noted human advancements like the Bronze Age, Iron Age and the Industrial Revolution to only name a few could be benchmarks related to our genetic enhancements.
In the last few decades mankind has viewed amazing intricate structures like crop circles that seem to increase over the years in complexity. They are supremely mathematical in nature. Let's say everything we see not only gets absorbed in memory, but the very effect of trying to understand them changes certain aspects of our genetic code in a very fine tuned way. With the millions of people that view them in computer and coffee table books, the influence would be worldwide.”
Click here for Parts 1 through 12 Earthfiles series with Joshua Rhinehall.
For further information about airplane and UFO encounters, please see reports below by finding and clicking on date and title in the Earthfiles Archive.
• 06/16/2011 — Final Part 12: Private Detective's Encounters with Non-Humans
• 05/05/2011 — Part 11: Private Detective's Encounters with Non-Humans
• 03/21/2011 — Part 10: Private Detective's Encounters with Non-Humans
• 03/10/2011 — Part 9: Private Detective's Encounters with Non-Humans
• 03/03/2011 — Part 8: Private Detective's Encounters with Non-Humans
• 02/19/2011 — Part 7: Private Detective's Encounters with Non-Humans
• 02/14/2011 — Part 6: Private Detective's Encounters with Non-Humans
• 02/08/2011 — Part 5: Private Detective's Encounters with Non-Humans
• 02/02/2011 — Part 4: Private Detective's Encounters with Non-Humans
• 01/26/2011 — Updated, Part 3: Private Detective's Encounters with Non-Humans
• 01/17/2011 — Part 2: Private Detective's Encounters with Non-Humans
• 01/15/2011 — UPDATED Part 1: Private Detective's Encounters with Non-Humans
"Parental olfactory experience influences behavior and neural structure in subsequent generations," December 1, 2013, Nature Neuroscience:
Yerkes National Primate Research Center, Emory University: http://www.yerkes.emory.edu
Mendelian Genetic Inheritance: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mendelian_inheritance
Cell Journal, August 3, 2012 Issue pre-released July 26, 2012:
AAAS ScienceNOW, July 26, 2012:
Genetic Introgression - Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Introgression
DNA Learning Center: http://www.dnalc.org/view/16083-Human-origins-family-tree.html
Cro-Magnon and Homo sapiens sapiens: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cro-Magnon
Majestic 12 Documents: http://www.majesticdocuments.com