Are Color-Modulated Rapid Pulses from 234 Stars E.T. Signals?
© 2017 by Linda Moulton Howe
— “The light pulses are separated by exactly the same time, like turning a flashlight
on and off, and the time separation is exactly the same — billions of times a second.”
- Ermanno Borra, Ph.D., Prof. of Physics, Univ. of Laval, Quebec City, Canada,
Graduate Student Eric Trottier
— “The one in 10,000 objects with unusual spectra seen by
Borra and Trottier are certainly worthy of additional study.”
- Breakthrough Listen/ Berkeley SETI Research Center, UC Berkeley, CA.
— “Meeting an advanced civilization could be like Native Americans
encountering Columbus. That didn't turn out so well.”
- Stephen Hawking,
Ph.D., U. K. Theoretical Physicist and Cosmologist
2.5 million star spectra from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey were analyzed with Fourier
transform analysis, but only 234 yellow stars had the peculiar color-modulated,
billions of pulses a second. Also see SDSS video at end of this report.
January 27, 2017 Pasadena, California - Two years ago on November 15, 2015, the American Astronomical Journal published a paper entitled, “Searching for Extraterrestrial Intelligence Signals in Astronomical Spectra, including Existing Data.” The writer is Ermanno Borra, Ph.D., Professor of Physics, Laval University in Quebec City, Canada. He received his doctorate in Astronomy from the University of Western Ontario in 1972, followed by his post-doctoral fellow at Hale Observatory and then a sabbatical in cosmology at the University of Arizona. Dr. Borra is currently a member of the Canadian Network for Space Research.
In his paper, Dr. Borra writes, “Consider an extraterrestrial civilization that is more advanced than ours. Let us assume that they want to signal their existence to other civilizations. This is not an easy task considering how vast the universe is. The best chance of being seen is by being accidentally detected during astronomical observations. They know, on the basis of their own experience, that a scientifically advanced civilization observes the sky and takes spectra of astronomical objects. ... Consequently, a good way to let others know of their existence is to generate a signal that is so unusual that it can only be artificial. A most unusual signal would be made of a spectral modulation ... that is so unusual that it warrants more observations, which will then reveal that it is artificial. ...ETI could signal its existence to others by sending light pulses with time separations of the order of a billion pulses a second that could be detected in spectra.”
Now two years later after his paper's proposal that astronomers do sky searches for unusual spectral modulations, Dr. Borra had his graduate student Eric Trottier analyze 2.5 million spectra in the Sloane Digital Sky Survey with Fourier transform analysis. Out of 2.5 million stars, only 234 were unusual in the same way: a billion color modulated pulses per second as Dr. Borra had suggested in his 2012 paper. Also strange is that all 234 stars are yellow suns like our solar system sun. Dr. Borra hypothesizes that the unusual rapid and color modulated pulses could be intelligent signalling from ETI, Extraterrestrial Intelligence, letting the universe know They are there and advanced enough to produce such signalling technology.
Dr. Borra and Eric Trottier then published that investigation in the Astronomical Society of the Pacific Journal three months ago on October 14, 2016, under the title: “Discovery of Peculiar Periodic Spectral Modulations in A Small Fraction of Solar Type Stars.”
Prof. Ermanno Borra's and graduate student Eric Trottier's most recent published paper on
October 14, 2016, in the Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific entitled
"Discovery of Peculiar Periodic Spectral Modualtions in A Small Fraction
of Solar-type Stars." See websites below for direct URL.
World headlines ranged from the sarcasm of Universe Today's, “Either Stars Are Strange, Or There Are 234 Aliens Trying to Contact Us”— to the U. K. Independent's serious “Strange Messages Coming from the Stars Are 'Probably' from Aliens, Scientists Say.” And the SETI Research Center at the University of California-Berkeley issued a press release that said: “The one in 10,000 objects with unusual spectra seen by Borra and Trottier are certainly worthy of additional study.”
Ermanno Borra, Ph.D., Prof. of Physics,
Laval University, Quebec City, Canada,
received his Ph. D. in Astronomy from
Univ. of Western Ontario in 1972; followed
as Carnegie post-doctoral fellow at Hale
Observatory, 1972-1974; sabbatical in
cosmology at Univ. of Arizona, 1982;
Canadian Network for Space Research.
Ermanno Borra, Ph.D., Prof. of Physics, Univ. of Laval, Quebec City, Canada: “Scientific research for extraterrestrial intelligence is a very valid scientific research. Lots of papers have been written on that, but intelligent life, none has been found. I wrote a paper, 2012, where I predicted if aliens want to let us know that they exist, they can let us know that they are there by sending pulses of light. So it's like a flashlight, turn on and off, but these are extremely rapid pulses. We're talking one billionth of a second. So very, very fast pulses of light.
IF I UNDERSTAND CORRECTLY, IN APPROXIMATELY THE YEAR 2012, YOU PREDICTED THAT ONE OF THE SIGNALS IN THE COSMOS THAT WE MIGHT LOOK FOR WOULD BE, QUOTE, "A PECULIAR PERIODIC SPECTRAL MODULATION IN A SMALL FRACTION OF SOLAR TYPE STARS, AND THAT THESE MODULATIONS COULD ORIGINATE FROM EXTREMELY POWERFUL LASERS, OR EVEN FROM THE MANIPULATION OF THE STAR'S LIGHT OUTPUT BY A SUFFICIENTLY ADVANCED EXTRATERRESTRIAL INTELLIGENCE." SO THIS IS WHAT YOU MEAN THAT —
— A FLASH OF BILLIONTHS OF A SECOND—
BILLIONS OF THESE FLASHES IN A SECOND IS WHAT YOU AND YOUR COLLEAGUE HAVE BEEN LOOKING FOR?
Yes. I predicted them in the (2012) theoretical paper. As I said, with a powerful laser, intelligent life create these flashes of light, and that creates a color modulation, OK? With the most powerful lasers that we have on Earth right now, we could create such signals. So imagine what a civilization which is thousands of years more advanced than us can do.
And what happens, these flashes of light, they create what's known as a spectral modulation, which is a color that varies. Very tight light spacings.
DID YOU SAY THAT IT PRODUCES A SPECIAL COLOR IN THE PULSES?
Yeah. The color—pulses—so it's like turning a flashlight on and off at billionths of a second. It creates colors that change. These found colors increase in intensity. Like blue is very intense. Yellow is very weak. Red is very strong. Except that the colors are very close together. Imagine the blue is very bright, the yellow is fainter, and then the red is bright again. I had a grad student, Eric Trottier, who did his Master's thesis with me, and one of the subjects of his thesis was to look for the kind of signal which I had predicted. And what we did to discover this kind of signal, we went through an astronomical database, which consists of spectra of astronomical objects. The Sloane Digital Sky Survey, my student analyzed 2.5 million spectra. I repeat, 2.5 million spectra of objects in the sky. And after analyzing the spectra to look for the kind of signal which I had predicted, he found exactly the signal which I had predicted in only 234 stars. And the strange thing is that the majority of the stars have a spectral type, which is a color, which is similar to the color of the sun.
ALL 234 OF THE STARS THAT CAME UP IN YOUR RESEARCH ARE IN THE SAME TYPE—YELLOW SUN, LIKE A G STAR SUN—THOSE ARE WHAT YOU ENDED UP WITH AS FILTERING OUT OF YOUR RESEARCH LOOKING FOR THE BILLION FLASHES A SECOND.
Exactly. Exactly. The majority of the 234 stars look like the sun. Very close to the sun. And even the other ones, they're not that much warmer or that much colder. It's very small fractions of these stars that look like the sun that have—it's not that all of the stars that look like the sun have the signal. We did a scientific study of this to make sure that it was not—could not be caused by statistical fluctuations. And the answer was no, OK? If the very, very brightest of all the stars that looked like the sun have the signal, well, it's very obvious why we detected such a small number is because the signal was too weak that only the brightest ones have the signal. But it was not the case. It was not just the brightest ones. The distribution of the apparent light—the light that we see from these stars—varied among the stars. It was not just the brightest ones that had it. And we did a very thorough scientific statistical analysis, and it shows that it was not due to statistical fluctuations.
Dec. 2012 Prof. Borro Proposal to Look
for Rapid and Color Modulated Pulses of E. T. Signals
“ETI could signal its existence to others by sending light pulses with time
separations of the order of [billions per second] that could be detected in spectra.”
- Ermanno Borra, Ph.D., Prof. of Physics, Laval Univ., Quebec, Canada
November 15, 2012, paper published in The Astronomical Journal
Prof. Ermanno Borra's first published paper on November 15, 2012, by Astronomical Journal,
"Searching for Extraterrestrial Intelligence Signals in Astronomical Spectra,
Including Existing Data." See websites below for direct URL link.
PROFESSOR, IF I UNDERSTAND CORRECTLY, YOU ORIGINALLY PRESENTED AND PUBLISHED YOUR HYPOTHESIS IN 2012 BECAUSE YOU WERE THINKING OF THE TYPE 2 KARDASHEV SCALE TO LOOK FOR EXTRATERRESTRIAL INTELLIGENCE IN THE UNIVERSE, AND AT THE TYPE 2, THE CATEGORY WOULD BE INTELLIGENCE CAPABLE OF EITHER PRODUCING A TECHNOLOGY THAT COULD PULSE A BILLION TIMES A SECOND OF LIGHT, OR COULD MANIPULATE THEIR LOCAL SUN TO SOMEHOW FLASH AT A BILLIONS TIMES A SECOND, AND THAT THIS WOULD SEPARATE OUT THESE SIGNALS FROM EVERYTHING NATURAL?
Exactly. In the paper, I suggested that lasers would do that. So it's pretty well what you just said. So what happens is that by sending these strange signals, they let us know, 'Hey! We are here.'
Anomalous 234 Star Pulses
Are Identically Alike?
IS IT TRUE THAT THE SIGNALS THAT YOU HAVE BEEN STUDYING ARE SO MUCH ALIKE?
Yes, exactly. They are so much alike. Yes. And the hypothesis I make is that the reason why the intelligent life send us the same signal is because these intelligent life have already communicated with each other, you know, a long time back because, you know, they may be thousands and thousands of years more advanced than we are. So because they already have communicated with each other, "Hey! Let's send exactly the same messages, the same pulses, so that some other civilization sees that and finds these strange signals, and 'Why are so much alike? That's strange.'" So they begin investigating that. They find out that it is ETI. It's a hypothesis — that we made, let's make it clear. I'm not certain a hundred percent it's that. Again, I am a scientist.
CAN YOU EXPLAIN FOR A GENERAL AUDIENCE WHAT IS IT ABOUT THE SIGNALS THAT ARE SO MUCH ALIKE?
It's that the light pulses. They send pairs of pulse which are separated by exactly the same time. It's like turning a flashlight on and off, on and off, and all of these on, off, on, off, the separation between the on, off, and on, off, the time separation is exactly the same. A fraction of a billionth of a second.
WHAT WOULD BE YOUR PROPOSAL FOR FURTHER STUDY ON THESE BILLION A SECOND LIGHT FLASHING SUNS?
Well, one would have to use a large telescope, and then use specialized instrumentation, which look for light pulses. Because the signal that we found is not light pulses. It's the modulation in the color. But it's such a strange color modulation that I do not see what physical cause could cause the modulation. It's not a natural modulation.
How Study the Billion Times
A Second Color Modulations?
WHAT WILL BE THE NEXT STEP THAT YOU DO TO TRY TO STUDY THIS MODULATION IN COLOR THAT IS SO UNUSUAL?
Well, I will not be able to do it myself. I wait for somebody else to do it because you need the specialized instrumentation which I do not have.
WHAT DO YOU SAY TO SCIENTISTS WHO MIGHT BE CRITICAL OF THE HYPOTHESIS THAT THESE 234 SOURCES IN WHICH THERE IS UNUSUAL MODULATION OF COLOR, THEY MIGHT ARGUE THAT THAT DOESN'T MEAN THAT THEY ARE INTELLIGENCES IN THE TYPE 2 ON THE KARDASHEV SCALE?
It's very, very strange that only 234 objects out of so many have the signal.
IF YOU ARE CORRECT, THEN YOU WOULD BE THE FIRST DISCOVERER OF OTHER INTELLIGENCE IN THE UNIVERSE?
Why Would Intelligences on Kardashev Scale
Signal to Strangers in the Universe?
In 1964, Soviet astronomer Nikolai Kardashev hypothesized three levels of civilizations our universe could have based on the order of magnitude of power energy available to them. Source: Wikipedia.
"Technological level close to the level presently attained on earth, with energy consumption at ≈4×1019 erg/sec (4 × 1012 watts)." Guillermo A. Lemarchand stated this as "A level near contemporary terrestrial civilization with an energy capability equivalent to the solar insolation on Earth, between 1016 and 1017 watts."
"A civilization capable of harnessing the energy radiated by its own star (for example, the stage of successful construction of a Dyson sphere), "with energy consumption at ≈4×1033 erg/sec." Lemarchand stated this as "A civilization capable of utilizing and channeling the entire radiation output of its star. The energy utilization would then be comparable to the luminosity of our Sun, about 4×1033 erg/sec (4×1026 watts)."
"A civilization in possession of energy on the scale of its own galaxy, with energy consumption at ≈4×1044 erg/sec." Lemarchand stated this as "A civilization with access to the power comparable to the luminosity of the entire Milky Way galaxy, about 4×1044 erg/sec (4×1037 watts)."
WHY DO YOU THINK THAT ANOTHER INTELLIGENCE, PERHAPS A TYPE 2 ON THE KARDASHEV SCALE, WHY WOULD THE BE SIGNALING FOR OTHER ATTENTION?
Well, it's hard to tell why, but my guess is what they do, they would want to communicate with us.
LAST YEAR IN 2016, ASTROPHYSICIST STEPHEN HAWKING WARNED THAT EARTH SHOULD NOT BE SENDING OUT SEARCH FOR EXTRATERRESTRIAL INTELLIGENCE SIGNALS—SETI—BECAUSE THERE COULD BE DANGER ON THE OTHER END OF SIGNALS FROM EARTH WHEN WE DO NOT KNOW THE INTENT OF OTHER INTELLIGENCE IN THIS UNIVERSE. SOME COULD BE QUITE HOSTILE, WHILE SOME ARE FRIENDLY.
They may be 10,000 or maybe even 100,000 years more advanced than we are. Can you imagine what kind of technology they have? We cannot imagine it at all. We do not have the slightest idea of what technology they have. And it's possible that they can communicate faster than light. We simply don't know it.
BUT YOU PERSONALLY ARE CONVINCED THAT IN THIS 13.8 to .9 BILLION LIGHT YEAR UNIVERSE THAT IT IS LIKELY THAT THERE IS OTHER INTELLIGENCE THAN NOT?
Being an astronomer, I would think that it is almost certain that life exists somewhere else. The number of stars in our galaxy is so huge, we're talking about billions of stars, that intelligent life exists.”
Stephen Hawking Has Warned in 2010
and 2016 About Sending Signals Into Space
A decade ago in February 2008, NASA pointed Deep Space Network telescopes towards the north star, Polaris, 430 light-years from Earth and sent the Beatles song, "Across the Universe" wondering if intelligent aliens there might receive the Earth song after 430 years. After that, U. K. eminent physicist and cosmologist Stephen Hawking warned that maybe sending signals from Earth could bring a threat to us: “If aliens visit us, the outcome would be much as when Columbus landed in America, which didn't turn out well for the Native Americans.” Dr. Hawking has long argued that the huge number of stars and galaxies implies a lot of planets with life forms on them, not just Earth. Hawking still worries in 2017 that not all would be friendly.
Controlled remote viewer Lyn Buchanan, who worked for the Defense Intelligence Agency's Star Gate program in the late 1980s, told me his remote viewing assignments showed him that the “universe is teeming with life. Some of it is friendly and some is very unfriendly.” Either way, Lyn knows that humans are not alone in this universe, never have been and thinks we all deserve to know the truths our governments hide.
— "Strangest Star Light Pattern in Milky Way Galaxy — Are There
Megastructures Orbiting KIC 8462852?"
For further information about searches for other intelligent life in this universe, please see reports in the Earthfiles Archive organized in chronological order from 1999 to 2016 ongoing of which a few are listed here.
• 12/21/2016 — Is the Praying Mantis In Human Abductions A Cosmic “Arbiter?”
• 12/21/2016 — Part 1: Is Our Universe “Someone Else's” Computer Simulation?
• 12/11/2016 — Part 1: Praying Mantis Emerges in Meditation
• 11/24/2016 — Part 1: E.T. Retrieval Team and “Alien War” in Greenland
• 11/24/2016 — Part 2: USAF Father's Young Son Abducted by Greys and Praying Mantis Being
• 11/06/2016 — Two Northern Mysteries — Strange, Persistent Ping from Arctic Sea Floor and “UFO? or 1950 Bomb?” Northwest of Vancouver, B. C.
• 07/02/2016 — NASA Photo Lab Tech Saw Negative of “Alien Object” On Moon Blacked Out
• 07/01/2016 — Antarctica Retired Navy Flight Engineer Warned by NSA to Stop Talking About Missing Scientists
• 07/01/2016 — Former NASA Engineer Says 5 Structured Domes in Moon Crater Photo Blacked Out
• 07/01/2016 — U. S. Navy Flight Engineer Saw Silver Discs and Entrance to Alleged E. T.and Human Collaboration Base in Antarctica
• 05/28/2016 — UAPs and Alien “Gods”
• 05/27/2016 — WWII Was An E.T. Battle Fought Through Humans, According to Retired U. S. Navy Engineer
• 05/27/2016 — Alien Agendas Include Animal Mutilations and Hybrids
• 10/29/2015 — Strangest Star Light Pattern in Milky Way Galaxy — Are There Megastructures Orbiting KIC 8462852?
"Searching for Extraterrestrial Intelligence Signals in Astronomical Spectra, including Existing Data," November 15, 2012, The Astronomical Journal, by Ermanno F. Borra, Ph.D., Laval University: https://arxiv.org/abs/1210.5986
"Discovery of Peculiar Periodic Spectral Modulations in A Small Fraction of Solar-type Stars," published October 14, 2016, in the Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific: http://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/1538-3873/128/969/114201/pdf
"Stephen Hawking's Alien-hunting Project Is Investigating Strange Signals from 234 Stars," October 18, 2016, Science Alert.com:
"Either Stars are Strange, or There Are 234 Aliens Trying to Contact Us," October 20, 2016, Phys.org:
Stephen Hawking Is Still Afriad of Aliens," September 24, 2016, Space.com:
Sloan Digital Sky Surveys: http://www.sdss.org/surveys/
Sloan Digital Sky Survey Video: "Charting the Heavens"